Male Genitourinary Disorders: Testicular Lumps & Swellings

Testicular Lumps & Swellings

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Lumps and swellings in the testicles are a relatively common symptom in boys and men, and can have a number of different causes.

The vast majority of testicular lumps and swellings are caused by benign (non-cancerous) conditions that may not need treatment, but it’s important to know what’s normal for you and to see your GP if you notice any changes in your testicles so they can try to identify the cause.


What causes testicular lumps and swellings?

There are many possible reasons why your testicles may become swollen or develop a lump. Some of the main causes are:

  • varicoceles – swellings caused by swollen and enlarged veins within the scrotum
  • hydroceles – swellings caused by a build-up of fluid around the testicle 
  • epididymal cysts – lumps caused by a collection of fluid in the epididymis (a coiled tube behind the testicles)
  • epididymo-orchitis – inflammation of the epididymis and testicles
  • inguinal hernias – where fatty tissue or a part of your bowel pokes through into your groin, which can cause the scrotum to become enlarged

A sudden and severely painful swelling in one of your testicles can be a sign of a condition called testicular torsion, which is where the blood supply to a testicle is interrupted.


*If you are unsure about the cause of your testicular pain ensure you speak to a doctor or nurse at your haemophilia centre immediately.

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There are many causes of lumps or pain in the scrotum. Most lumps are not cancer, and many are not serious. However, you should always see a doctor if you have pain or a lump in this area.


The scrotum is a loose bag of skin which hangs behind the penis in men and boys. Inside it are the two testicles (testes). The testicles make the male hormone called testosterone and produce sperm (semen). The sperm passes along ducts in the testes to a tube called the epididymis where it is stored. Sperm then passes through another tube called the vas deferens. The vas deferens carries the sperm to the penis.

Male Reproductive Organs                                        Cross-section diagram of a testis

Boys and men should get to know what their testes usually feel like, so they will know if something has changed.






Source: Patient / NHS Choices